**what is Vector in R:**

In this tutorial we will learn about vector in R. The vector is the simplest way to store more than one value in R. The c function (mnemonic for concatenate or combine) allows you to quickly enter data into R.

##### Numeric Vector Example:

X <- c(1,-2,5.3,6,-20,4) # numeric vector print(X)

#### Output:

##### Character Vector Example:

Y <- c("one","two","three") # character vector print(Y)

#### Output:

##### Logical Vector Example:

Z <- c(FALSE,TRUE,FALSE,FALSE,TRUE,FALSE) #logical vector print(Z)

#### Output:

In vector, Objects should be of single data type. vector doesn’t accept multiple data type

#### Example :

W <- c(FALSE,1,-2.0,"two") print(W) mode(W)

#### Output:

[1] “FALSE” “1” “-2” “two”

[1] “character”

In the above example, the object W has converted all the elements of different data type into character.

### Accessing Vector Elements in R

Elements of a Vector in R are accessed using indexing. The **[ ] brackets** are used for indexing. Indexing starts with position 1. Giving a negative value in the index drops the element of that position from result. **TRUE**,** FALSE** or **0** and **1** can also be used for indexing.

# Accessing vector elements using position. x <- c("Jan","Feb","Mar","April","May","June","July") y <- x[c(2,3,6)] print(y) # Accessing vector elements using logical indexing. v <- x[c(TRUE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,FALSE,TRUE,FALSE)] print(v) # Accessing vector elements using negative indexing. t <- x[c(-2,-5)] print(t)

When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −

[1] “Feb” “Mar” “June”

[1] “Jan” “June”

[1] “Jan” “Mar” “April” “June” “July”

### Vector arithmetic operations(addition subtraction, multiplication and division) in R:

Two vectors of same length can be added, subtracted, multiplied or divided giving the result as a vector output.

# Create two vectors. v1 <- c(1,2,4,5,7,11) v2 <- c(12,4,3,8,1,21) # Vector addition. add.result <- v1 v2 print(add.result) # Vector substraction. sub.result <- v1-v2 print(sub.result) # Vector multiplication. multi.result <- v1*v2 print(multi.result) # Vector division. divi.result <- v1/v2 print(divi.result)

When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −

[1] 13 6 7 13 8 32

[1] -11 -2 1 -3 6 -10

[1] 12 8 12 40 7 231

[1] 0.08333333 0.50000000 1.33333333 0.62500000 7.00000000 0.52380952

### Vector element recycling in R

If we apply arithmetic operations to two vectors of unequal length, then the elements of the shorter vector are recycled to complete the operations.

v1 <- c(1,2,4,5,7,11) v2 <- c(4,11) # V2 becomes c(4,11,4,11,4,11) add.result <- v1 v2 print(add.result) sub.result <- v1-v2 print(sub.result)

When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −

[1] 5 13 8 16 11 22

[1] -3 -9 0 -6 3 0

### Sorting a Vector in R

Elements in a vector can be sorted using the **sort()** function.

#numerical vector sort v1 <- c(1,2,4,5,7,11) sort(v1) # sorts in ascending order which is default sort(v1,decreasing=TRUE) # sorts in descending order # Character vector sort v2 <- c("Cherry","BlueBerry","Apple","Pineapple") sort(v2) # sorts in Alphabetical order which is default sort(v2,decreasing=TRUE) # sorts in Reverse Alphabetical order

When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −

[1] 1 2 4 5 7 11

[1] 11 7 5 4 2 1

[1] “Apple” “BlueBerry” “Cherry” “Pineapple”

[1] “Pineapple” “Cherry” “BlueBerry” “Apple”